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London, U.K.
17 September 1888


At a moment when our medical men and so called scientific experimentalists are trying to persuade us all to be:

Inoculated for Cholera,
Inoculated for rabies,
Inoculated for Typhoid,
Vaccinated for Smallpox, and
Inoculated for Pulmonary Consumption,

I propose to suggest a line in which their inquiries may be pursued with great advantage to the entire community.

You will have seen that one of the great difficulties associated with the discovery of the Whitechapel murderers - I assume that there are two at least - will be the question of blood.

Usually, when a mysterious murder has been committed, the police are on the lookout for someone whose clothes bear marks of blood.

Often they arrest people whose clothes are stained, only to find that the marks are not those of blood at all. At other times they take men up who have blood upon them, but who some plausible reason for its being there.

Take the case of the Eltham murder. Someone, who must have stains of blood upon his clothes, was "wanted" and presently young Pook was arrested. He had blood on his coat or vest. But he proved that he was subject to epileptic fits, and that the blood might have been produced by his biting his own lips. The blood on Habron's clothes, it will be remembered, very nearly consigned a man to the gallows, as Mr. Peace afterwards blithely explained; while not many years ago a man arrested in the Midlands would have been in jeopardy of his life had he not proved that some blood on his clothes was that of a pig he had killed.

Now, I am assuming that the police are right in their conjectures, which are that one of the horse slaughterers in the neighbourhood of this murder may possibly have had some connection with the last crime. Supposing such a man were arrested - in the present state of our science nothing could be drawn legally from the fact that he had blood upon his clothes. he could not say that it was the blood of a horse, and not that of a woman, and no one could contradict him.

This brings me to an important point which I want to lay before you - The blood of men and women is different from that of other animals, and our scientists ought to know exactly in what respects. To be more exact, I may mention that it is already known that lithium, for instance, exists in larger proportions in human blood than in that, say, of a pig. The spectroscope has shown this conclusively. What I claim is that there are other differences which our "wise men" ought to discover.

There is, for instance, a difference between arterial and venous blood when it first flows. Is it not extremely likely that the spectroscope would show similar differences in these stains? And do you not see that if it did so, and our scientific men were clever enough to note them, a murderer who had cut a throat and received thence the one kind of blood on his clothes, could not explain the stains away by saying that he had accidentally given himself or received?

Then again, the exact spectrum band of each of the two different forms in each case of

Human Blood,
Horse Blood,
Ox Blood,
Sheep's Blood,
Pig's Blood,
Dog's Blood, and
Bird's Blood,

should all be regularly tabulated, so that here again the criminal pursuer might have an absolutely trustworthy guide. Were such a table drawn up, see the good results which would appear immediately. We execute for murder - the sentence, when once carried out, is irrevocable, and a mistake cannot be rectified. Is it not worthwhile to hang the right man? Again, we often now are perplexed which man to arrest. Do we not let criminals loose who should be carefully tended, and brought before a Jury of their fellow countrymen? Surely the repression of crime would be facilitated by such a study as that I have suggested.

The idea is one for scientific men carefully to consider.

About Town.


Still no arrest; but the police are hopeful. Such is the news this morning. It is stated that the police have some fresh information which encourages them to believe that before the week is over they will be able to solve the mystery. From what direction this information proceeds is as yet purely a matter of conjecture. They are being daily, almost hourly, flooded with suggestions and statements. These are committed to writing at Commercial street Station, and in several instances the police have been made cognisant of what the informers consider to be suspicious movements of individuals whose appearance is supposed to tally with that of the man wanted. Every "clue" given by the public in their zeal to assist the police has been followed up, but hitherto without success.


Meantime, it is asserted by one authority that the police have obtained some important information in reference to the lunatic arrested at Holloway on Thursday. He is aid to be a master German pork butcher, and has been in the habit of carrying large sharp knives. He has been, it is avowed, absent from home frequently during the past ten weeks, and it is therefore believed that he has been missing about the times of the murders. It is also ascertained - so, at least, it is asserted by the Daily News - that he entirely changed his clothes after the murder. It is doubtful whether assertions are justified. Another reporter declares that the lunatic has been discharged.


The Vigilance Committee met at the Crown Tavern, Mile end road, on Saturday. The object of the gathering was to consider what steps should be taken to aid the police. Mr. Aaron, who presided, announced subscriptions of 5 from Mr. Spencer Charrington, Mr. Aaron, and himself. The speaker added that he had been forcibly reminded, during his efforts to obtain subscriptions towards a reward for the apprehension of the murderer, of the great dissatisfaction which existed owing to the withdrawal of Government rewards for the discovery of the murder; for with one exception every donor had expressed an opinion that it was the duty of the Government to offer a substantial reward in such cases, and many persons who were ready to lay down 100 towards any charitable object had flatly refused to subscribe to this funs on the ground that it was the imperative duty of the Scotland yard authorities and of the Home Office to offer a pecuniary inducement to persons (not he actual murderer) to come forward and give information. He regretted to say that the police authorities had decided to offer no reward, but at the same time it was only fair to reflect that the police probably knew more about the matter than they chose to make public, and that therefore they considered a reward unnecessary. Time, of course, might show how the matter stood, and he trusted that the police were right in what they were doing. The proceedings were eventually adjourned until today, when a definite programme will be arrived at as to the amount to be offered as a reward for information.


A great deal of additional evidence, relating to the brutal murder of Mary Ann Nicholls, in Buck's row, Whitechapel, on August 31st last has been gathered by the police. The inquest on the body of the unfortunate woman was resumed by Coroner Wynne E. Baxter, at the Working Lads' Institute, Whitechapel road, this afternoon.


Dr. Llewellyn was recalled. He said there was an old scar about an inch and a quarter long on the forehead of the deceased. The deceased had worn rings some time previous to her death.


Mrs. Emma Green, a respectably dressed woman, said she lived at New Cottage, Buck's row. That was the cottage next to where the deceased was found. Two sons and a daughter lived there with her. On Thursday, the 30th of August, they were in bed by eleven o'clock. Witness and her daughter slept in a front room on the first floor. Witness did not wake up that night until she heard a knock at the front door. That was about four o'clock. Witness opened the window, and looked out. She saw several constables and some other men. Witness also saw the body of a person lying on the ground. It was, however, too dark for her to see who it was. There was not sufficient noise that night to awaken anyone in the house.

By a Juror - There was often great noise in the street, as people passed through it. They did not, however, take any notice of it.


Thomas Ede, a signalman in the employ of the East London Railway Company, said that he saw a man on the 8th inst. with a knife.

The Coroner mentioned that that was the morning of the Hanbury street murder, but he would take the evidence.

Witness said that he was coming along the Cambridge heath road, about twelve o'clock on the day mentioned. When opposite the Foresters' Arms he saw a man on the opposite side of the street. His appearance, which was peculiar, attracted witness's attention. He at first appeared to have a wooden arm. Witness watched him for some time, and he then saw a knife up his sleeve. He saw about four inches of the blade. He put his hand in his trousers pocket. Two or three men also saw the man, and witness asked them to arrest the man. They would not do so, so witness followed him for some distance. The man saw that he was being followed, and he quickened his pace. Witness then lost sight of him.


Inspector Helson said the man had not been found.

The Coroner - Can you describe the man to us?

Witness - He was about five feet eight inches in height, and was about thirty five years of age. He had dark hair and moustache. He wore a double peaked cap. He was attired in a short dark brown jacket, and a pair of white overalls over a pair of dark trousers. The overalls were clean. The man walked as though he had stiff knee joints.


Walter Purkis, of Essex Wharf, Buck's row, said he was manager of the wharf. It was immediately opposite where the deceased was found. Witness slept in the front of the house, and was awake a considerable portion of the night. Witness, however, did not know that anything had happened in the street until he was called up by the police at about four o'clock in the morning. Neither witness nor his wife heard a sound during the night. The street had been unusually quiet. Neither witness nor his wife had heard a sound during the night. had there been any quarrelling in the street that night, or had the deceased called out for assistance, witness said he thought he would have heard it.


Albert Mulshall, a night watchman in the employ of the Whitechapel District Board, said that on the night of Aug. 30th, he was on duty in Winthorpe (sic) street. Witness admitted that he "dozed" once or twice.

The Coroner - I suppose your watching is not up to much, is it? - The pay is not up to much, Sir. Thirteen hours on duty for 3s., and find your own coke, is rather hard. (Laughter.)

Witness, in answer to further questions, said he was within seventy yards of the place where the murdered woman was found. Witness, however, did not hear any noise that night. The streets were very quiet.


Police Constable John Thail (sic) said that on his beat he passed the end of Buck's row. Witness passed the end about every thirty minutes. He, however, saw nothing there on the night of August 30th. At about 3.45 he was signalled by another constable, by the flashing of his lantern. He went down Buck's row, and found Police constable Neal (sic) who was alone with the body of the murdered woman. He fetched Dr. Llewellyn. There was a large quantity of congealed blood on the pavement, near the woman's neck; and when witness lifted up the body the back appeared to be saturated with blood as far as the waist. Witness afterwards searched Essex Wharf, the Great Eastern and East London and District Railways, but found nothing of a suspicious character.

The inquiry is proceeding.


In all the synagogues of London the Jewish community rigidly observed Saturday as the Day of Atonement. At the Bayswater Synagogue, Dr. Hermann Adler, the Deputy Chief Rabbi, having pointedly alluded to the iniquities of "that grinding tyranny and physical and social debasement known as the sweating system," referred to the recent Whitechapel outrages. He emphatically expressed his conviction that no Hebrew, native or alien, could have been guilty of such atrocious and inhuman crimes. He said he felt sure he uttered the sentiments of the Jewish community generally, and especially of their East end brethren, in expressing a hope that the mystery would soon be cleared up, and that the spread of true religious and secular education, the culture of the mind and heart, would stay the commission of such abominable and revolting deeds.

Related pages:
       Dissertations: Jacob the Ripper? 
       Dissertations: Responses to the Ripper Murders: Letters to Old Jewry 
       Press Reports: City Press - 13 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Denton Journal - 10 November 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Observer - 15 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 11 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 10 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 11 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Jewish Chronicle 
       Press Reports: Jewish Chronicle - 11 March 1910 
       Press Reports: Jewish Chronicle - 12 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Jewish Chronicle - 16 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Jewish Chronicle - 22 March 1889 
       Press Reports: Jewish Chronicle - 4 March 1910 
       Press Reports: Manchester Guardian - 13 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Manchester Guardian - 4 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 15 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 11 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 12 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 13 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 14 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 17 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 18 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 26 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 31 October 1888 
       Ripper Media: Jack the Ripper in Fact and Fiction 
  Polly Nichols
       Home: Timeline - Mary Ann Nichols 
       Dissertations: Old Wounds: Re-examining the Bucks Row Murder 
       Dissertations: The Riddle of New Cottage 
       Message Boards: Mary Ann Nichols 
       Official Documents: Bucks Row - Census Listings 
       Official Documents: Polly Nichol's Inquest 
       Press Reports: Atchison Daily Globe - 3 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Austin Statesman - 05 September 1888 
       Press Reports: British Daily Whig - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 18 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 24 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 3 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 4 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 5 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 7 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 10 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 18 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 19 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 24 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 3 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 4 September 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 22 September 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 29 September 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 8 September 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Observer - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Observer - 22 September 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Observer - 8 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Eastern Argus - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Eastern Argus - 8 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Eastern Post - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Eastern Post - 8 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 3 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 31 August 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 4 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 5 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 6 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 31 August 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening Standard - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening Standard - 18 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening Standard - 24 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening Standard - 3 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening Standard - 4 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening Standard - 7 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Fort Wayne Gazette - 2 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Freemans Journal and Daily Commercial Advertiser - 1 Sept... 
       Press Reports: Freemans Journal and Daily Commercial Advertiser - 3 Sept... 
       Press Reports: Freemans Journal and Daily Commercial Advertiser - 4 Sept... 
       Press Reports: Grimsby Observer - no date 
       Press Reports: Illustrated Police News - 22 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Illustrated Police News - 8 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 18 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 24 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Lloyds Weekly News - 2 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Lloyds Weekly News - 9 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Manchester Guardian - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Manchester Guardian - 3 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Manchester Guardian - 4 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Manchester Guardian - 5 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 18 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 24 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 3 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 4 September 1888 
       Press Reports: New York Times - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 18 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 3 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 31 August 1888 
       Press Reports: Penny Illustrated Paper - 22 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Penny Illustrated Paper - 29 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Penny Illustrated Paper - 8 September 1888 
       Press Reports: People - 2 September 1888 
       Press Reports: People - 23 September 1888 
       Press Reports: People - 9 September 1888 
       Press Reports: St. James Budget - 8 September 1888 
       Press Reports: St. James Gazette - 18 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 3 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 31 August 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 4 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 6 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 18 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 24 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 27 April 1866 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 3 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 4 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Walthamstow and Leyton Guardian - 8 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Weekly Herald - 7 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Woodford Times - 21 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Woodford Times - 28 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Woodford Times - 7 September 1888 
       Victims: Mary Ann 'Polly' Nichols 
       Victims: Testimonies of Charles Cross and PC John Neil 
       Victorian London: Buck's Row 
       Witnesses: Henry Tomkins, James Mumford and Charles Brittain 
  Vigilance Committees
       Dissertations: The Jack the Ripper Syndicate 
       Notable People: Charles Reeves 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 1 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 17 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 4 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 8 October 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 13 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Eastern Post - 21 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Echo - 19 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 10 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 14 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 19 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 20 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 21 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening Standard - 12 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening Standard - 20 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 17 September 1888 
       Press Reports: St. James Gazette - 3 October 1888 
       Ripper Media: Take It For a Fact